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Body Position -  The athlete’s body position should be in line with the top of the water. This will decrease resistance and drag making the whole exercise much easier for the pupil.

Most common fault - position of the body below the surface line of the water creating resistance and drag. 

Breathing pattern as one, two or three depending on age and stage of athletes competency.  Breathing commences on the 2nd. In sweep when the hands begin the downward thrust at the chin and finishes between the hands passing the navel and touching the legs.

Most common fault - breathing too early or to late creating a banana effect or flatness in the body. 

Head position for breathing – chin on the water, driving foreword towards the number at the other end of the pool, not to the roof, NEVER see daylight between chin and water.

Most common fault - If daylight is seen the athlete is pushing up instead of foreword, we want to get to the other end of the pool a.s.a.p, not the roof. 

Head position (during the stroke) chin glued to chest.

Most common fault – loose head position, head moving around, not streamlined. 

Initial arm entry – shoulders to hug ears, entering thumb first with an outward catch position, just inline with the shoulders at around 10 past 10. (The more flexible athlete will enter inside shoulders, sometimes the hands even touch on entry, and this is OK.

Most common fault – entering outside line of body at around 9 fifteen.  

Underwater phase (The more flexible athlete will not need to do the first in sweep action for obvious reasons.) On the initial in sweep- make sure the pitch of the hand is cupped and fingers together and turned inwards, sculling all the way in until the hands meet.

Most common fault – NO in sweep, hands flat and not allowing for a catch of water.Outsweep-with the same pitch as the in sweep reverse hand position, keeping the elbows high and sculling outwards just passed the shoulder width.

Most common fault –sculling outwards too far with flat palms, (NO pitch) 


On the 2nd.Insweepkeep the same pitch and finger position, start the in sweep with high elbows and the hands turned inwards, sculling all the way until the finger tips touch near the chin, emphasis on HIGH ELBOWS.

Then pushing straight down the centre of the body with the thumbs as close to the stomach as possible and the finger tips as close together as possible.

Accelerate past the navel extending the arms fully to touch the upper thigh-

This is the propulsive phase of the stroke.

I believe that with the force of pushing down the centre line of the body the arms naturally perform ‘the key whole’. Therefore the techniques of the key whole become a natural progression in the stroke without actually asking for it. Make sure that the athlete finishes the underwater phase with palms to the sky.

Most common fault – pulling outside of bodyline, finishing stroke off at waist and finishing with palms facing down.     

Above water arm recovery action with the palms facing the sky, move the arms over the top of the water, straight arms are essential, gradually turning the hands to face the water for the initial arm entry (initial arm entry as previously advised).

Most common fault – Bent arm recovery, arms not clearing the water due to poor body position or poor kick action.  

Kick as – Double dolphin, with an upbeat and a downbeat for each kick.  Big Kick to throw little kick to pull. The kick is fully flexed from the ankle, toes to the sky then toes to the bottom of the pool and being driven from the HIPS.

Common Faults - Low legs, only one beat per kick, single dolphin and timing incorrect, kicking from the knees.


We are looking for: 

Nice straight arm recovery and good breathing position, chin on water, eyes foreword.



To enter the wall on a full stroke the athlete must adjust his/her stroke at the flags.  

# The athlete is to be drilled on the fastest way to execute the turn


“On a FULL stroke.”


The Butterfly Turn        

Enter the wall with NO breathing from the flags.


Before the athlete executes the turn he/she must determine which side they are going to turn to – the right or the left?   

If they decide to turn the left they first touch the wall on a full stroke, with both hands then quickly drop the left shoulder, 

Sculling the left hand in a circular motion helping the direction change, to the left, briskly spinning the body,  

Then firmly place both feet on the wall, at the same time they bring the right arm up and over the water with the thumb of the right hand scraping the side of the head,  

Pushing off firmly with the feet into a streamline body position,  

Short sharp dolphin kicks are then performed for maximum speed with the chin tucked firmly down onto the chest.  

Then NO breathing for at least one stroke before beginning the next leg.


A goal time of .80 can be timed as a turn drill, from the hands touching the wall to the feet touching the wall.                             



Butterfly Dive

Using the style that best suites your individual athlete, on the command takes your makes, the athlete sets him/herself in their start position.

When the start signal is given, this can be one of many, a whistle, a gun or a buzzer, the swimmer exits the block using as much force from the legs and core body strength as possible, propelling themselves towards the number on the other end of the pool, in a streamline position, reducing the resistance from air.

Hitting the water hands first, the body then follows entering the water through the whole that the hands just made, with NO splash.

Tightly streamlining, at the very first sign of deceleration the legs kick strong, in short sharp actions, around six times depending on the leg power and age of the athlete. Then comes the break out stroke leading into butterfly. 




Butterfly finish is performed at race pace hitting the wall with both hands on an even plane preferable in line with the water and in the centre of the touch pad, this will activate the touch pad sensor correctly.

Easy to remember

If both hands come forward together as in Butterfly and Breaststroke then you finish with both hands on the wall.

If your hands come forward independently as in freestyle and backstroke then you finish with one hand.



 Fingertip together as they press down the centerline of the body,

 Palms up on finish of stroke, thumbs touching thighs,

     Straight-arm recovery,   

Kick and throw – Kick and pull,

Up beat, down beat in EACH kick, 

Continuous arm action, both legs symmetrical, 

Chin on water to breath, pushing chin to opposite end of pool,